• Resources for Parents


    The Texas Dyslexia Handbook was updated in 2018.  You can find it on the web by googling Texas Dyslexia Handbook 2018.  https://tea.texas.gov/sites/default/files/2018-Dyslexia-Handbook_Approved_Accomodated_12_11_2018.pdf



    The following is taken from the Texas Dyslexia Handbook, 2007, 2010

    The Texas Education Code (TEC) §38.003 defines dyslexia in the following way:

    (1) Dyslexia means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to

    read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and

    sociocultural opportunity.

    (2) Related disorders includes disorders similar to or related to dyslexia such as

    developmental auditory imperception, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia,

    developmental dysgraphia, and developmental spelling disability.


    The current definition from the International Dyslexia Association states the following:

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by

    difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding

    abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of

    language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of

    effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading

    comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and

    background knowledge.

    (Adopted by the International Dyslexia Association Board of Directors, Nov. 12, 2002)

    The primary difficulties of a student identified as having dyslexia occur in phonemic awareness and

    manipulation, single-word decoding, reading fluency, and spelling. Secondary consequences of dyslexia may

    include difficulties in reading comprehension and/or written expression. These difficulties are unexpected

    for the student’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities.  Additionally, there is often a family history of similar difficulties.


    The following are the primary reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:

     Difficulty reading real words in isolation

    Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense words

    Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense words

     Slow, inaccurate, or labored oral reading (lack of reading fluency)

     difficulty with learning to spell